15. The protection of individuals should be technological neutral and not depend on the techniques used; otherwise this would create a serious risk of circumvention. The protection of individuals should apply to processing of personal data by automated means, as well as to manual processing if the data are contained or are intended to be contained in a filing system. Files or sets of files as well as their cover pages, which are not structured according to specific criteria, should not fall within the scope of this Directive. This Directive should not apply to the processing of personal data in the course of an activity which falls outside the scope of Union law, in particular concerning national security, or to data processed by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies, such as Europol or Eurojust.